Wednesday, 21 June 2017

Rectus Abdominis Muscle Deatil :

Rectus abdominis muscle : 

Rectus Abdominis Muscle

The rectus abdominis muscle, otherwise called the "abs", this is a matched muscle running vertically on each side of the foremost mass of the human stomach area. There are two parallel muscles, isolated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba. It reaches out from the pubic symphysis, pubic peak and pubic tubercle poorly, to the xiphoid procedure and costal ligaments of ribs V to VII superiorly. The proximal connections are the pubic peak and the pubic symphysis. It appends distally at the costal ligaments of ribs 5-7 and the xiphoid procedure of the sternum.

The rectus abdominis muscle is contained in the rectus sheath, which comprises of the aponeuroses of the sidelong muscular strength. Groups of connective tissue called the tendinous crossing points navigate the rectus abdominus, which isolates this parallel muscle into unmistakable muscle guts. The external, most parallel line, characterizing the "abs" is the linea semilunaris. In the midriffs of individuals with low muscle to fat quotients, these tummies can be seen remotely and are usually alluded to as "four", "six", "eight", or even "ten packs", contingent upon what number of are unmistakable; albeit six is the most well-known.

Source/Insertion :

The rectus abdominis is a long level muscle, which reaches out along the entire length of the front of the stomach area, and is isolated from its kindred of the inverse side by the linea alba.

The upper bit, connected basically to the ligament of the fifth rib, more often than not has a few filaments of addition into the front limit of the rib itself.

It's normally around 10 mm thick or 20 mm thick in youthful competitors, for example, handball players

Nerve Supply :

The muscles are innervated by thoraco-stomach nerves, these are continuations of the T7-T11 intercostal nerves and puncture the foremost layer of the rectus sheath. Tactile supply is from the 7-12 thoracic nerves. 



8 Pack Of Rectus Abdominis Muscle

 

Activity :

The rectus abdominis is a critical postural muscle. It is in charge of flexing the lumbar spine, as while doing a supposed sit up Exercise. The rib confine is raised to where the pelvis is the point at which the pelvis is settled, or the pelvis can be brought towards the rib confine (back pelvic tilt) when the rib confine is settled, for example, in a leg-hip raise. The two can likewise be united at the same time when nor is settled in space.

Sit Up Exercise is Most Common Form Of Exercise Where Rectus Abdominal Musct is Chief Muscle Used In This Action.

Eight Pack Or Six Pack Exercise is most Common And Famous Among People.

Exercise Of Rectus Abdominals :

Sit Up Exercise : 


Sit Up Exercise
In Supine Position Flexes Both Legas , Hands Behind Head And Flexes The Spine And Heads Towards Knee And Repetation Of Same .

Two-sided Leg Elevation In Supine Postion Uses Lower Abdominals Muscle.

Rectus Abdominis is solid Back Flexor Muscle.

To Reduce Lordosis Strenthening Of Rectus Abdominis Muscle is Required.

strenthening of Rectus Abdominis And Other Back Flexor Muscle is Back Pain is Most Common And Is Called Williams Abdominal Exercise.


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Wednesday, 21 December 2016

Physiotherapy Treatment Camp in Bapunagar :

We Have Starting Free Physiotherapy Treatment Camp in Bapunagar :

Physiotherapy clinic Bapunagar

Appoiment Call : 9898607803

Physiotherapy Treatment Mainly Available in Paralysis, Hemiplegia,Paraplegia,Cerebral Palsy, Facial palsy, Joint Stiffness, Post Operative Weakness,  Chest Physiotherapy, Weight Care Exercise/Fitness Exercise.

Please Book Your Appointment :  Call : 9898607803

Monday, 18 November 2013

PHYSIOTHERAPY IN CARDIO-PULMONARY CONDITION

EMPHYSEMA :
IT IS THE CONDITION OF THE LUNG CHERACTERISED BY PERMANENT DILATATION OF THE AIR SPACES DISTAL TO THE TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES WITH DESTRUCTION OF THE WALLS OF THESE AIRWAYS..
CAUSES:
CONGENITAL PRIMARY EMPHYSEMA MAY BE CAUSED BY ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY.
SECONDARY TO OTHER FACTRORS LIKE CIGARETTE SMOKING,OCCUPATIONAL LUNG DISEASE,CYSTIC FIBROSIS,CHRONIC BRONCHITIS.
TYPES:
  1. CENTRILOBULAR
  2. PANLOBULAR
PATHOLOGY :
SMOKING CAUSES THE CLUSTERING OF PULMONARY ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES AROUND THE TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES.THESE MACROPHAGES ARE ABNORMAL IN SMOKERS AND THEY RELEASE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES WHICH DESTROYE THE LUNG TISSUE LOCALY.
CLINICAL FEATURES:
  • PROGRESSIVE DYSPNOEA
  • COUGH W3ITH SPUTUM
  • CHEST SHAPE
  • POOR POSTURE
  • POLYCYTHEMIA
  • COR PULMONALE
 COMPLICATIONS:
PNEUMOTHORAX
RESPIRATORY FAILURE
CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE
PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT:
  1. FLU INJECTION EVERY WINTER
  2. STEROIDS
  3. ANTIBIOTICS
  4. OXYGEN THERAPY
  5. SURGERY
PHYSIOTHERAPY:
AIMS:
  • TO TEACH THE PATIENT TO BREATH WITH THE MINIMUM POSSIBLE EFFORT
  • TO ESTABLISH A COORDINATED PATTERN OF BREATHING
  • TO ASSIST IN THE REMOVAL OF SECRETIONS.
  • TO INCREASE THE RANGE OF MOVEMENTS OF THE JOINTS
  • TO INCREASE EXERCISE TOLERANCES.
  • TO REGAIN FULLEST POSSIBLE FUNCTION.
ASTHMA:
ASTHMA IS THE CLINICAL SYNDROME CHARACTERISED BY ATTACKS OF WHEEZING AND BREATHLESSNESS DUE TO NARROWING OF THE PULMONARY AIRWAYS.
TYPES:
EXTRINSIC ASTHMA 
INTRINSIC ASTHMA
PATHOLOGY:
  • SPASM OF SMOOTH MUSCLE IN THE WALLS OF THE BRONCHI AND BRONCHIOLES.
  • OEDEMA OF THE MUCUS MAMBRANE OF THE BRONCHI AND BRONCHIOLES EXCESSIVE MUCUS PRODUCTION
CLINICAL FEATURES:
EXTRINSIC ASTHMA
ONSET IS SUDDEN AND PAROXYSMAL.OFTEN AT NIGHT.AN ATTACK STARTS WITH CHEST TIGHTNESS,DRYNESS OR IRRITATION IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT.ATTACKS MAY BE EPISODIC,OFTEN OCCURING SEVERAL TIMES A YEAR.
WHEEZE AND DYSPNOEA
COUGH IS UNPRODUCTIVE
POSTURE
PULSE IS RAPID
TACHYCARDIA
CYANOSIS
TREATMENT:GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMATIC PATIENTS COMPRISES PREVENTION OF  ATTACKS,MAINTENCE OF GENERAL FITNESS AND TREATMENT DURING AN ATTACK.
BRONCHIECTASIS :
IT IS AN ABNORMAL DIALATATION OF THE BRONCHI ASSOCIATED WITH OBSTRUCTION AND INFECTION.
TYPES:
CONGENITAL
ACQUIRED
PATHOLOGY:
BRONCHIAL OBSTRUCTION WILL CAUSE ABSORPTION OF THE AIR FROM THE LUNG TISSUE DISTAL TO THE OBSTRUCTION AND THIS AREA WILL THEREFORE SHRINK AND COLLAPSE.THIS CAUSES A TRACTION FORCETO BE EXERTED UPON THE MORE PROXIMAL AIRWAYS WHICH WILL DISTORT AND DILATE THEM.
CLINICAL FEATURES:
COUGH AND SPUTUM
DYSPNOEA
HAEMOPTYSIS
RECURRENT PNEUMONIA
HALITOSIS
CHRONIC SINUSITIS
CLUBBING
THORACIC MOBILITY
CLUBBING 
COMPLICATIONS:
RECURRENT HAEMOPTYSIS
PLEURISY AND EMPYEMA
ABCESS FORMATION.
EMPHYSEMA
RESPIRATORY FAILURE
RIGHT VENTRICULAR FAILURE
RIGHT VENTRICULAR FAILURE
PNEUMONIA 
PHYSIOTHERAPY:
  • REMOVE SECRETIONS AND CLEAR LUNG FIELDS.
  • TEACH GOOD COUGHING TECHNIQUE.
  • MAINTAIN MOBILITY OF THE THORAX.
  • PROMOTE GOOD GENERAL HEALTH
CYSTIC FIBROSIS
IT IS THE DISORDER OF EXOCRINE GLANDS,WITH A HIGH SODIUMCHLORIDE CONTENT IN SWEAT AND PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY RESULTING IN MALABSORPTION.
THERE IS HYPERTROPHY AND HYPER PLASIA OF MUCUS SECRETING GLANDS RESULTING IN EXCESSIVE MUCUS PRODUCTION IN THE LINING OF BRONCHI WHICH PREDISPOSES THE PATIENT TO CHRONIC BRONCHOPULMONARY INFECTION.
CLINICAL FEATURES:
CHILDREN:
  • MECONIUM ILEUS
  • FAILURE TO THRIVE AND GAIN WAIGHT.
  • COUGH PRODUCING COPIOUS,OFTEN PURULENT,SPUTUM
  • DYSPNOEA
  • WHEEZING
  • HIGH LEVEL OF SODIUM IN SWEAT
  • FREQUENT,FOUL SMELLING STOOLS 
ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS:
  • PROGRESSIVE BREATHLESSNESS
  • REDUCED FEV1 AS CHRONIC AIRWAYS OBSTURCTION DEVELOPS.
  • CONTINUED WHEEZING AND PRODUCTIVE COUGH WITH PURULENT SPUTUM
  • HAEMOPTYSIS
  • FINGER CLUBBING
  • PUBERTY DELAYED
  • INFERTILITY
COMPLICATIONS:
  • HAEMOPTYSIS
  • SPONTANEUS PNEUMOTHORAX
  • LUNG ABCESSS,BRONCHIECTASIS
  • MECONIUM ILEUS
  • LIVER DISEASE
TUBERCULOSIS
  :
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal contagious disease that can affect almost any part of the body but is mainly an infection of the lungs.

  • Types of TB. Tuberculosis (TB) is divided into two categories: pulmonary and extrapulmonary.

  • Tuberculosis is an infection of the lungs caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis).
 MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
The death of myovardial muscle cells.it occurs when myocardial ischeamia is sufficiently severe and prolong to cause irreversible damage.
Risk factors: 

  • FANILY HISTORY
  • SERUM LIPID
  • BLOOD PRESSURE
  • TOBACCO CHEWING
  •  PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN LEISURE
  • STRESS
  • OBESITY
  • CLOTTING FACTORS
Management:
AIMS:
  1.  TO KEEP THE PATIENT ALIVE
  2. TO RETURN HIM TO HIS NORMAL PLACE IN SOCIETY WITH AS FEW SYMPTOMS AS GOOD A PROGNOSIS AS POSSIBLE.
TREATMENT:
  • REASSURANCE THAT HE CAN BE HELPED
  • RELIEF OF PAIN
  • DRUGS TO MAINTAIN CIRCULATION
  • ADMINISTRATION OF OXIGEN
  • REGULAR EXERCISES IMPROVE THE RISK OF TOLERANCE OF THE PATIENTS
  • DRUGS

 






























Arterial Thrombi


coronary bypass thrombosis pathology
Coronary thrombosis.
When a thrombus forms within an artery, this is known as an arterial thrombosis.
Arterial thrombi:
  • Usually develop on top of an atherosclerotic plaque
  • Have a grey-white appearance, are firmly adherent and grow in the opposite direction from the point of attachment
  • Are composed of regularly arranged layers of platelets and fibrin, irregularly mixed with small amounts of darker red coagulated blood containing erythrocytes
  • Manifest as MI unstable angina, ischaemic stroke and some manifestations of peripheral arterial disease, such as acute limb ischaemia 
  •  

Risk factors

Important risk factors for arterial thrombosis include:
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • Increased levels of cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Increasing age
  • Family history
  • Physical inactivity
  • Increased concentrations of blood coagulation factors
  • Blood serum lipid abnormalities

Incidence and prevalence

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common form of cardiovascular disease. In CAD, atherosclerosis damages the coronary artery wall predisposing to thrombus formation. The symptoms and severity of acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina and MI) vary depending on the degree to which thrombi occlude the coronary arteries.




PNEUMOTHORAX

 A pneumothorax is a collection of free air in the chest outside the lung that causes the lung to collapse. 



TYPES:
 A spontaneous pneumothorax, also referred to as a primary pneumothorax, occurs in the absence of a traumatic injury to the chest or a known lung disease. A secondary (also termed complicated) pneumothorax occurs as a result of an underlying condition.





Picture of Pneumothorax (Collapsed Lung)
Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.1kYpO07q.dpuf



PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT:

Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment

  •     To improve distribution of ventilation
  •     To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  •     To increase oxygenation
  •     Improve exercise tolerance
  •     Maintain airway clearance
  • Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment

    A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
    If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
    Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
    Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
    When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.

Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment

    A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
    Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
    If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
    Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
    Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
    Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
    Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.

Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
  • If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
  • Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
  • Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.
Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
  • Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
  • If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
  • Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
  • Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
  • Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.1kYpO07q.dpuf
Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
  • If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
  • Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
  • Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.
Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
  • Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
  • If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
  • Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
  • Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
  • Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.1kYpO07q.dpuf
Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.8GYUgEt7.dpuf
PULMONARY FIBROSIS

Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
  • If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
  • Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
  • Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.
Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
  • Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
  • If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
  • Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
  • Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
  • Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.1kYpO07q.dpuf
Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
  • If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
  • Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
  • Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.
Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
  • Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
  • If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
  • Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
  • Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
  • Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.

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Consult Dr Prodyut Das (PT)
HOD Physiotherapy & Fitness center 
NIMT Hospital, Greater Noida
Former Physio ISIC Hospital 
(+919910883909) 
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Pulmonary fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis) in the lungs. It is also described as "scarring of the lung"
.
There are many potential causes of pulmonary fibrosis, such as:
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • scleroderma
  • lupus
  • mineral dusts - coal, silicon, asbestos (asbestosis), metals
  • poisonous industrial gases such as chlorine and sulphur dioxide
  • radiation treatment to the chest
  • poisons - particularly paraquat
  • medications (e.g., nitrofurantoin, amiodarone, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide methotrexate)

Symptoms and Complications of Pulmonary Fibrosis

For the majority of people, the symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis come on slowly over the course of months to years, but for some people the symptoms can develop more rapidly.
Most people with pulmonary fibrosis first see their doctor about increasing shortness of breath during exercise. Some also have a cough. These are often the only symptoms of early pulmonary fibrosis, but you might also feel one or more of the following symptoms:
  • loss of stamina
  • loss of appetite
  • fatigue
  • weight loss
  • diffuse chest pain
Later on, symptoms can include:
  • shortness of breath without exercise - eating, talking, or just resting
  • cyanosis (blue lips, nail beds, and sometimes skin due to lack of oxygen in the tissue)
  • clubbing of the fingers (enlarged fingertips)




ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapidly developing, life-threatening condition in which the lung is injured to the point where it can't properly do its job of moving air in and out of the blood.

 

Conditions that can directly injure the lungs and possibly lead to ARDS include:

  • Breathing in smoke or poisonous chemicals
  • Breathing in stomach contents while throwing up (aspiration)
  • Near drowning
  • Pneumonia
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a lung infection

Conditions that can indirectly injure the lungs and possibly lead to ARDS include:

    AARDS X-ray cropped.jpg
  • Bacterial blood infection (sepsis)
  • Drug overdose
  • Having many blood transfusions
  • Heart-lung bypass
  • Infection or irritation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
  • Severe bleeding from a traumatic injury (such as a car accident)
  • Severe hit to the chest or head
ARDS is defined by three main signs and symptoms:

  • Rapid breathing
  • Feeling like you can't get enough air in your lungs
  • Low oxygen levels in your blood, which can lead to organ failure and symptoms such as rapid heart rate, abnormal heart rhythms, confusion, and extreme tiredness
  •  The aims of physiotherapy are:

  1. Passive/Active movements
  2. Chest Physiotherapy in this case involve four principal manoeuvers:
  3. Positioning to enhance the removal of secretions and to improve gas exchange
  4. Manual Hyperinfl
  5. Removal of retained secreations
  6. ation
  7. Endotracheal suction
  8. Manual techniques which include shakings and vibrations
  9. Passive and active exercises need to be performed regularly whilst the patient mobility remain restricted during the critical stages of their disease, in order to maintain the mobility of joints and extensibility of soft tissues (e.g. muscles, tendons and ligaments).
PMEUMONIA
 Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.


Signs and symptoms:



A diagram of the human body outlining the key symptoms of pneumonia

PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT:

-HUMIDIFICATION-steam inhalation and nebulization to moistem & clear ling fields secreations.

-Clapping,shaking,& breathing exercise

-Postural drainage in different positions

-Chest expersion exercise

-Exercise tolerance & fitness training.

HUMIDIFICATION-steam inhalation and nebulization to moistem & clear ling fields secreations.
-Clapping,shaking,& breathing exercise
-Postural drainage in different positions
-Chest expersion exercise
-Exercise tolerance & fitness training.