Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Knee Valgus Deformity : Overview:




Knee valgus is as valgus collapse and medial knee displacement. It is characterized by hip adduction and hip internal rotation, usually when in a hips-flexed position (the knee actually abducts and externally rotates)

CAUSES:-

 

One of the most commonly held theories is that reduced gluteal activity levels allow for a greater degree of hip internal rotation and consequently also tibial rotation and therefore Develop knee valgus.

RISK FACTOR:-

It is most commonly implicated in injuries involving the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) but it also features as a risk factor in respect of other leg injuries, including patellofemoral pain syndrome, knee osteoarthritis, medial collateral ligament sprains and more general knee cartilage and meniscus damage.

DIAGNOSIS:-


Q Angle Measurement In Knee Valgus
 

The degree of genu valgum can be estimated by the Q angle, which is the angle formed by a line drawn from the anterior superior iliac spine through the center of the patella and a line drawn from the center of the patella to the center of the tibial tubercle.
 

In women, the Q angle should be less than 22 degrees with the knee in extension and less than 9 degrees with the knee in 90 degrees of flexion.
 

In men, the Q angle should be less than 18 degrees with the knee in extension and less than 8 degrees with the knee in 90 degrees of flexion.
 

A typical Q angle is 12 degrees for men and 17 degrees for women.

TREATMENT:-


Splinting In Knee Valgus


It is normal for children to have knock knees between the ages of two and five years of age, and almost all of them resolve as the child grows older. If symptoms are prolonged and pronounced or hereditary, doctors often use orthotic shoes or leg braces at night to gently move a child's leg back into position. If the condition persists and worsens later in life, surgery may be required to relieve pain and complications resulting from severe or hereditary genu valgum. Available surgical procedures include adjustments to the lower femur and total knee replacement (TKR).
Weight loss and substitution of high-impact for low-impact exercise can help slow progression of the condition.

PHYSIOTHERAPY -


Exercise In Knee Valgus


Physiotherapy Treatment


 Activating and developing the arches of the feet,
 Waking up the outer leg muscles (abductors), and
 Learning how to move the inner ankle bone inwards towards the outer ankle bone, and upwards towards the knee.
 

 Strengthening exercise -

                         Side Palnk,
                         Side Step-up,
                         Stationary Lunge Exercise,
                         Lunge Exercise,
                         Rubber Band Squats,
                         Lying Side Leg Lifts,
                         Lying Hip External Rotation,
                         One Legged Wall Push.

Monday, 20 November 2017

Carpel Tunnel Syndrome And Exercise :


Carpel Tunnel Syndrome: Overview And Physiotherapy :

Carpel Tunnel Syndrome Introduction


 Carpel Tunnel Syndrome is tingling numbness,weakness Of Palm Muscle , and Parasthesia in your hand in area of Median Nerve because of pressure on the median nerve in your wrist.

The median nerve and several tendons run from your forearm to your hand through a small space in your wrist called the carpal tunnel .


Causes Of  carpal tunnel syndrome? :

About Carpel Tunnel:


Median Nerve Entering Palm Through Carpel Tunnel


The carpal tunnel is a narrow passage in the wrist Joint , about an inch wide. The floor and sides of the tunnel are formed through small wrist bones called carpal bones.
The roof of the tunnel is a strong band of connective tissue called the transverse carpal ligament. Because these boundaries are very rigid and tight , the carpal tunnel has little capacity to "stretch enough " or increase in size.
The median nerve goes down the arm and forearm, passes through the carpal tunnel at the wrist, and goes into the hand. The nerve provides feeling/control Movement in the thumb and index, middle, and ring fingers. The nerve also controls the muscles around the base of the thumb.
The nine tendons that bend the fingers and thumb also travel through the carpal tunnel. These tendons are called flexor tendons.


Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when the tunnel becomes narrowed or when tissues surrounding the flexor tendons become swell, Giving Extra pressure on the median nerve.

Pressure on the median nerve causes carpal tunnel syndrome. This pressure can come from swelling or anything that makes the carpal tunnel smaller. Many things can cause this swelling, including:



  •     Illnesses such as hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes.
  •     overactivity (Making the same hand movements over and over, especially if the wrist is bent down )
  •   
  •     Pregnancy/Obecity.
  •  
  •     Injury Arount Wrist Like Fracture, Other Injury.
Symptoms ? :

Symptoms In Carpel Tunnel Syndrome


 

Carpal tunnel syndrome can cause tingling numbness, weakness of Palm Muscle Supplied By Median Nerve or pain in the fingers or handAnd Parasthesia. Some people may have Refer pain in their arm between their hand and their elbow.

Symptoms most often occur in the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. If you have problems with your other fingers but your little finger is fine, this may be a sign that you have carpal tunnel syndrome. A Ulner nerve gives feeling to the little finger.

You may first notice symptoms at night. You may be able to get relief by shaking your hand, Or In Wrist Mid Extension Posiotion.


Diagnosis ? :

Your doctor will ask if you have any health problems-such as arthritis, hypothyroidism, or diabetes-or if you are pregnant. He or she will ask if you recently injury Near your wrist, arm, or neck. Your doctor will Take History About your daily routine and any recent activities that could have injury your wrist.

During the exam, your doctor will check the Sensation, Muscle Power , and Positioning of your neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, and hands. Your doctor may suggest tests, such as blood tests or nerve tests Like EMG Or NCV Specially For Median Nerve.
 


Treatment? :


 

Treatment In Carpel Tunnel Syndrome

Mild symptoms usually can be treated with home care. You can:
  •     Avoiding activities that cause numbness, pain.
  •     Rest your wrist enough between activities.
  •     Ice your wrist for 10 to 15 minutes 1 or 2 times an hour.
  •     Try taking  anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain and reduce swelling.
  •     Wear a wrist splint at night. This takes pressure off your median nerve.
  •     Consult Physiotherapist Or Orthopaedic As Early As Possible.

Physiotherapy Exercise :



Common Wrist Flexor Muscle Stretching Position

 

Generally Muscle Supplied By Median Nerve Are Require Strenthening Exercise , So According Assessment Of Muscle Of Palm, And Then Active Movement, Or With Electrical Stimulation, And For Relieving Pain Use Ultrasound, Or Infrared.
Stretching Exercise Of Common Wrist Flexors Are Too Important Without Affecting Pain. 



Splinting :


Neutral Position in Pain Relieving Position is Ideal For Splinting And Night Use Of Splint Lead To Relieve Pressure On Median Nerve .

Splint In Carpel Tunnel Syndrome

 The as Soon As you starting treatment, The Symtoms Gradually Down And Relief From Pain And Other Symptoms and preventing long-term damage to the nerve.

Medicine For Other Cause Like Diabetes Or Hyperthyroidism Properly.

Surgery is an optional. But it's usually used only when symptoms are Not Improving that you can't work or do other things even after Few weeks to months of Physiothereapy treatment.


Prevention is Better Than Cure :



To keep carpal tunnel syndrome from come Again, take care of your basic health. Stay at a healthy And Fit. Don't smoke. Exercise to stay strong and flexible. If you have a long-term health problem, such as arthritis or diabetes, follow your doctor's advice for keeping your condition under control.

You can also try to take good care of your wrists and hands:

  •     Do Wrist Muscle Stretching Exercise At Regular Interval.
  •     Try to keep your wrist in a neutral position.
  •     Use your whole hand-not just your fingers-to hold objects.And Also Alternate Hands.
  •     When you type, keep your wrists straight, with your hands a little higher than your wrists. Relax your shoulders when your arms are at your sides.
  •     If you can Alternate hands Regularly when you repeat movements.
  •     Take Enough Rest In Between Activity.
  
Related Article :

Piriformis Stretching

Saturday, 18 November 2017

Tennis Elbow :

LATERAL  EPICONDYLITIS ( Tennis Elbow )





Tennis elbow, or parallel epicondylitis, is a difficult state of the elbow caused by abuse.

Tennis elbow is an irritation of the ligaments that join the lower arm muscles outwardly of the elbow. The lower arm muscles and ligaments end up plainly harmed from abuse — rehashing similar movements and once more. This prompts torment and delicacy outwardly of the elbow.

There are numerous treatment choices for tennis elbow. As a rule, treatment includes a group approach. Essential specialists, physical advisors, and, now and again, specialists cooperate to give the best care.

Life structures:
Anatomy


Elbow joint is a joint made up of three bones: upper arm bone (humerus) and the two bones in lower arm (range and ulna). There are hard knocks at the base of the humerus called epicondyles. The hard knock outwardly (sidelong side) of the elbow is known as the parallel epicondyle.

Muscles, tendons, and ligaments hold the elbow joint together.

Parallel epicondylitis, or tennis elbow, includes the muscles and ligaments of lower arm. Lower arm muscles broaden wrist and fingers. Lower arm ligaments — frequently called extensors — connect the muscles to bone. They append on the parallel epicondyle. The ligament typically engaged with tennis elbow is known as the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB).

CAUSES:

Abuse.

Exercises.

Age.

Obscure.

Torment PHASES:

Stage 0: No torment or soreness.

Stage 1: Soreness after movement, typically gone in twenty-four hours.

Stage 2: Mild firmness and soreness before action which vanishes with warm-up. No agony amid movement, however gentle soreness after action that vanishes inside 24 hours.

Stage 3: Mild/direct firmness and soreness in addition to mellow torment amid movement which does not adjust action.

Stage 4: Pain amid action which adjusts movement.

Stage 5: Constant agony even very still.

Side effects:

Diffuse achiness.

Morning solidness.

Periodic night torment.

Dropping of items/powerless hold quality.

Torment with palpation of parallel epicondyle.

Torment with dynamic or opposed expansion.

Torment with getting a handle on objects with the affected hand.

Agony or delicacy on the external side of the elbow.

Torment when you rectify or raise your wrist and hand.

Torment exacerbated by lifting a substantial question.

Agony when you influence a clench hand, to hold a question, shake hands, or turn entryway handles.

Torment that shoots starting from the elbow into the lower arm or up into the upper arm.

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS:


Powerless muscles.

Abuse playing or working with unnecessary and dull compelling grasping.

Holding while at the same time broadening or bending of the wrist.

Racquets/devices that are too substantial or uneven.

Inappropriate hardware mistaken grasp estimate, strings too tight.

poor playing method a lot of wrist activity, jerky strokes, poor ball contact.

Determination:

X-beams.

X-ray.

EMG.

Active recuperation EXAMINATION:

Cozen's test:

Resistive Tennis Elbow Test:The tolerant sits with the analyst balancing out the included elbow while palpating the parallel epicondyle With a shut clench hand, the patient pronates and radially strays the lower arm and broadens the wrist against the inspector's protection". A positive outcome would be if there is torment along the parallel epicondyle or target muscle shortcoming.

Medicines:

Medicine: Anti-fiery pharmaceutical diminishes torment.

Steroid Inection: Steroids, for example, cortisone, are exceptionally powerful calming drugs.

Rest: You may have incidentally stop the exasperating movement. A time of rest is most essential to permit the damage an opportunity to mend. You will aggravate the condition by proceeding with the action that reason the damage, particularly on the off chance that you encounter torment. Keep away from overwhelming liftting or conveying opening entryways or more than once shaking hands.

Ice: Apply chilly to your elbow three times each day for 20 to 30 minutes on end in the early agonizing stage and for 20 minutes after dynamic utilization of arm. Secure skin by putting a towel amongst elbow and the ice pack.

Support: A counter power prop which is and versatile tie that is worn 1-2 crawls beneath the elbow. This kind of support offers pressure to the lower arm muscle and decreases the power that the muscle transmits to the ligament.

Modalities:

Interferential current.

Ultrasound.

Chilly pack.

Laser treatment.

Physio treatment works out:

Opposed wrist expansion.

Opposed wrist flexion.

Opposed lower arm supination and pronation.

Wrist flexor extend.

Wrist extensor extend.

Finger expansion.

Hand squuze.

Wrist scope of movement: Bend your wrist forward and in reverse the extent that you can. Rehash 10 times. Do 3 sets.

Lower arm scope of movement: With your elbow next to you and twisted 90 degrees, bring your palm looking up and hold for 5 seconds at that point gradually turn your palm looking down and hold for 5 seconds. Rehash 10 times. Do 3 sets. Ensure you keep your elbow bowed at 90 degrees all through this activity.

Elbow scope of movement: Gently bring your palm up toward your shoulder and curve your elbow the extent that you can. At that point rectify your elbow the extent that you can. Rehash 10 times. Do 3 sets

Lower arm pronation and supination: Hold a soup can or pound handle in your grasp, with your elbow twisted 90 degrees. Gradually pivot your hand with palm upward and afterward palm down. Rehash 10 times. Do 3 sets.

Wrist augmentation: Stand up and hold a floor brush handle in the two hands. With your arms at bear level, elbows straight and palms down, roll the floor brush handle in reverse in your grasp as though you are reeling something in utilizing the sweeper handle. Rehash for 1 moment and afterward rest. Do 3 sets.

Wrist strenghening.
Exercise With Dumbbells


(1) Wrist flexion: Holding a soup can or pound handle with your palm up, gradually twist your wrist up. Gradually lower the weight and come back to the beginning position. Rehash 10 times. Do 3 sets. Bit by bit increment the heaviness of the would you be able to are holding.

(2) Wrist expansion: Holding a soup can or pound handle with your palm down, delicately twist your wrist up. Gradually lower the weight and come back to the beginning position. Rehash 10 times. Do 3 sets. Bit by bit increment the heaviness of the would you be able to are holding.

(3) Wrist spiral deviation: Hold your wrist in the sideways position with your thumb up. Holding a container of soup or . pound handle, tenderly twist your wrist up with your thumb coming to towards the roof. Gradually lower to the beginning position. Try not to move your lower arm all through this activity. Rehash 10 times. Do 3 sets.

Elbow recovery program:

A slow movement of the activities is critical. In spite of the fact that they may appear to be simple at first you should take after the encased advances intently to keep an expansion or re-disturbance of your manifestations. Before starting the reinforcing practices you should warm-up your body to a light sweat. Attempt 3 to 5 minutes of energetic strolling, cycling, running and so on. Do practices just once per day: more isn't better and can re-bother your manifestations. Wear the Count'R-Force support if prompted by your advisor or on the off chance that you encounter torment while playing out the activities. Do each activity at its own rate. You will accomplish higher weights speedier on a few activities than others. Do each activity appropriately and gradually don't work through peavierain.

Stage 1 Exercises:

Keep your elbow twisted to 90 degrees. On the off chance that this is excruciating lean forward and twist your elbow much more. Your lower arm ought to be all around bolstered on your thigh or a table.

Start with no weight, doing 10 to 15 redundancies for each activity.

Gradually advance the reiterations in sets of 10, each couple of days as your elbow permits until the point that you are serenely doing 3 sets of 10 redundancies for 2 sequential days without expanding your manifestations.

Increment to a one-pound weight (a little container of soup functions admirably). Backpedal to 10 to 15 reiterations for each activity.

Gradually work up to 3 sets of 10 reiterations once more.

Increment to a two-pound weight and again slice back to 10 to 15 reiterations.

Gradually advance to 3 sets of 10 reiterations.

Proceed with this steady movement until the point that you are utilizing a three-pound weight for 3 sets of 10 reiterations without expanding your side effects.

Advance to next stage as capable.

Stage 2 Exercises:

Elastic band and press works out:

Start with your elbow bowed next to you and advance by playing out the activities with your arm straight out before you as capable. You ought to do these two activities a few times each day, consistently. It is a smart thought to have a great time and elastic band in advantageous spots like in your auto, at your work area, or by the TV. Be mindful so as not to overcompensate these activities as they can expand your torment.

Ice after activities.

Saturday, 4 November 2017

DINNER FORK DEFORMITY & PHYSIO EXERCISE :

DINNER  FORK DEFORMITY :



Dinner Fork Deformity



Dinner  fork distortion is because of colle's break in which the crack of the distal span in lower arm with dorsal(posterior) and outspread displacmentof the wristand hand.

Supper fork likewise called "blade" deformation because of the state of the lower arm.

CAUSE:-

Wrist break.

Over extended hand (basic in kid)

Individuals who are experiencing osteoporosis

Awful mishap

Games man,skiers .skaters and bikers.

Calcium deficincy isn't the immediate reason however a contributing variable for the disfigurement.

Indication:-

The patient discovers trouble in moving his wrist.

The torment increments when wrist is flexed.

There is swelling of the wrist territory.

The territory is delicate to touch.

Wounding is basic because of extreme effect.

There is deadness close by. Fingers may wind up noticeably pale.

Quiet discovers trouble in grasping anything.

Finding:-

Dorsal tilt

Spiral shortening

Loss of ulnar inclination=

Spiral angulation of the wrist

Dorsal uprooting of the distal section

TREATMENT:-
Splinting in Dinner Fork Deformity



Therapeutic treatment - upper appendage Elevation, Compression, Medication.

Surgical treatment - Mangement relies on seriousness of crack.

An undisplaced crack might be treated with a thrown alone

A break with gentle angulation and removal may require shut diminishment.

Noteworthy angulation and deformation may require an open decrease and interior obsession or outer obsession.

PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT:-
Dinner Fork Deformity And Exercise



After break in cast -

Check the mortar cast any misfortune or an excessive amount of tight

Sling shoud be check it will be with perect neck cushioning

Depend odema shoud be treat with height and back rub from fingertip to palm.

Dynamic Rang of movement practice in non-influenced side digit, thumb,elbow and bear joint to forestall solidness.

In influenced side just supination and pronation not permitted generally all other development empower.

In second week -

Recasting adviced if cast is too free or craked.

Proceed with ROM exercise to the shoulder, elbow,digit and thumb.

In the event that outer obsession given then-check for any contamination and dynamic supination and pronation alongside those say above.

After second week -

Wrist Mobilization - To lessened torment, oedema and distress - Hydrotherapy and Thermotherapy given.

Dynamic wrist preparation is started. Tolerant is made to sit on a seat and to keep his lower arm in mid inclined over a table. With the influenced lower arm settled by the other hand understanding is told too effectively flex and broaden the wrist with gravity disposed of.

Uninvolved wrist assembly: This is started after around 7-10 days of the above treatment. He understanding sits with the influenced hand laying on the edge of the table. Settling it with the typical hand the influenced arm is brought down underneath the table (palmer flexion) and raised over the table (dorsiflexion) occasionally.

Then again the Indian Salutation strategy for namaskar (for dorsiflexion) and turn around greeting (for palmer flexion) accomplishes similar outcomes

Pronation and Supination.

Activities through action like turning the keys, doorknobs, scooping beans and placing them in the case.

To enhance the grasp and composing ability ulnar deviation practices are energized.

Wednesday, 21 June 2017

Rectus Abdominis Muscle Deatil :

Rectus abdominis muscle : 

Rectus Abdominis Muscle

The rectus abdominis muscle, otherwise called the "abs", this is a matched muscle running vertically on each side of the foremost mass of the human stomach area. There are two parallel muscles, isolated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba. It reaches out from the pubic symphysis, pubic peak and pubic tubercle poorly, to the xiphoid procedure and costal ligaments of ribs V to VII superiorly. The proximal connections are the pubic peak and the pubic symphysis. It appends distally at the costal ligaments of ribs 5-7 and the xiphoid procedure of the sternum.

The rectus abdominis muscle is contained in the rectus sheath, which comprises of the aponeuroses of the sidelong muscular strength. Groups of connective tissue called the tendinous crossing points navigate the rectus abdominus, which isolates this parallel muscle into unmistakable muscle guts. The external, most parallel line, characterizing the "abs" is the linea semilunaris. In the midriffs of individuals with low muscle to fat quotients, these tummies can be seen remotely and are usually alluded to as "four", "six", "eight", or even "ten packs", contingent upon what number of are unmistakable; albeit six is the most well-known.

Source/Insertion :

The rectus abdominis is a long level muscle, which reaches out along the entire length of the front of the stomach area, and is isolated from its kindred of the inverse side by the linea alba.

The upper bit, connected basically to the ligament of the fifth rib, more often than not has a few filaments of addition into the front limit of the rib itself.

It's normally around 10 mm thick or 20 mm thick in youthful competitors, for example, handball players

Nerve Supply :

The muscles are innervated by thoraco-stomach nerves, these are continuations of the T7-T11 intercostal nerves and puncture the foremost layer of the rectus sheath. Tactile supply is from the 7-12 thoracic nerves. 



8 Pack Of Rectus Abdominis Muscle

 

Activity :

The rectus abdominis is a critical postural muscle. It is in charge of flexing the lumbar spine, as while doing a supposed sit up Exercise. The rib confine is raised to where the pelvis is the point at which the pelvis is settled, or the pelvis can be brought towards the rib confine (back pelvic tilt) when the rib confine is settled, for example, in a leg-hip raise. The two can likewise be united at the same time when nor is settled in space.

Sit Up Exercise is Most Common Form Of Exercise Where Rectus Abdominal Musct is Chief Muscle Used In This Action.

Eight Pack Or Six Pack Exercise is most Common And Famous Among People.

Exercise Of Rectus Abdominals :

Sit Up Exercise : 


Sit Up Exercise
In Supine Position Flexes Both Legas , Hands Behind Head And Flexes The Spine And Heads Towards Knee And Repetation Of Same .

Two-sided Leg Elevation In Supine Postion Uses Lower Abdominals Muscle.

Rectus Abdominis is solid Back Flexor Muscle.

To Reduce Lordosis Strenthening Of Rectus Abdominis Muscle is Required.

strenthening of Rectus Abdominis And Other Back Flexor Muscle is Back Pain is Most Common And Is Called Williams Abdominal Exercise.


Post Free Ads Online

Wednesday, 21 December 2016

Physiotherapy Treatment Camp in Bapunagar :

We Have Starting Free Physiotherapy Treatment Camp in Bapunagar :

Physiotherapy clinic Bapunagar

Appoiment Call : 9898607803

Physiotherapy Treatment Mainly Available in Paralysis, Hemiplegia,Paraplegia,Cerebral Palsy, Facial palsy, Joint Stiffness, Post Operative Weakness,  Chest Physiotherapy, Weight Care Exercise/Fitness Exercise.

Please Book Your Appointment :  Call : 9898607803

Monday, 18 November 2013

PHYSIOTHERAPY IN CARDIO-PULMONARY CONDITION

EMPHYSEMA :
IT IS THE CONDITION OF THE LUNG CHERACTERISED BY PERMANENT DILATATION OF THE AIR SPACES DISTAL TO THE TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES WITH DESTRUCTION OF THE WALLS OF THESE AIRWAYS..
CAUSES:
CONGENITAL PRIMARY EMPHYSEMA MAY BE CAUSED BY ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY.
SECONDARY TO OTHER FACTRORS LIKE CIGARETTE SMOKING,OCCUPATIONAL LUNG DISEASE,CYSTIC FIBROSIS,CHRONIC BRONCHITIS.
TYPES:
  1. CENTRILOBULAR
  2. PANLOBULAR
PATHOLOGY :
SMOKING CAUSES THE CLUSTERING OF PULMONARY ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES AROUND THE TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES.THESE MACROPHAGES ARE ABNORMAL IN SMOKERS AND THEY RELEASE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES WHICH DESTROYE THE LUNG TISSUE LOCALY.
CLINICAL FEATURES:
  • PROGRESSIVE DYSPNOEA
  • COUGH W3ITH SPUTUM
  • CHEST SHAPE
  • POOR POSTURE
  • POLYCYTHEMIA
  • COR PULMONALE
 COMPLICATIONS:
PNEUMOTHORAX
RESPIRATORY FAILURE
CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE
PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT:
  1. FLU INJECTION EVERY WINTER
  2. STEROIDS
  3. ANTIBIOTICS
  4. OXYGEN THERAPY
  5. SURGERY
PHYSIOTHERAPY:
AIMS:
  • TO TEACH THE PATIENT TO BREATH WITH THE MINIMUM POSSIBLE EFFORT
  • TO ESTABLISH A COORDINATED PATTERN OF BREATHING
  • TO ASSIST IN THE REMOVAL OF SECRETIONS.
  • TO INCREASE THE RANGE OF MOVEMENTS OF THE JOINTS
  • TO INCREASE EXERCISE TOLERANCES.
  • TO REGAIN FULLEST POSSIBLE FUNCTION.
ASTHMA:
ASTHMA IS THE CLINICAL SYNDROME CHARACTERISED BY ATTACKS OF WHEEZING AND BREATHLESSNESS DUE TO NARROWING OF THE PULMONARY AIRWAYS.
TYPES:
EXTRINSIC ASTHMA 
INTRINSIC ASTHMA
PATHOLOGY:
  • SPASM OF SMOOTH MUSCLE IN THE WALLS OF THE BRONCHI AND BRONCHIOLES.
  • OEDEMA OF THE MUCUS MAMBRANE OF THE BRONCHI AND BRONCHIOLES EXCESSIVE MUCUS PRODUCTION
CLINICAL FEATURES:
EXTRINSIC ASTHMA
ONSET IS SUDDEN AND PAROXYSMAL.OFTEN AT NIGHT.AN ATTACK STARTS WITH CHEST TIGHTNESS,DRYNESS OR IRRITATION IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT.ATTACKS MAY BE EPISODIC,OFTEN OCCURING SEVERAL TIMES A YEAR.
WHEEZE AND DYSPNOEA
COUGH IS UNPRODUCTIVE
POSTURE
PULSE IS RAPID
TACHYCARDIA
CYANOSIS
TREATMENT:GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMATIC PATIENTS COMPRISES PREVENTION OF  ATTACKS,MAINTENCE OF GENERAL FITNESS AND TREATMENT DURING AN ATTACK.
BRONCHIECTASIS :
IT IS AN ABNORMAL DIALATATION OF THE BRONCHI ASSOCIATED WITH OBSTRUCTION AND INFECTION.
TYPES:
CONGENITAL
ACQUIRED
PATHOLOGY:
BRONCHIAL OBSTRUCTION WILL CAUSE ABSORPTION OF THE AIR FROM THE LUNG TISSUE DISTAL TO THE OBSTRUCTION AND THIS AREA WILL THEREFORE SHRINK AND COLLAPSE.THIS CAUSES A TRACTION FORCETO BE EXERTED UPON THE MORE PROXIMAL AIRWAYS WHICH WILL DISTORT AND DILATE THEM.
CLINICAL FEATURES:
COUGH AND SPUTUM
DYSPNOEA
HAEMOPTYSIS
RECURRENT PNEUMONIA
HALITOSIS
CHRONIC SINUSITIS
CLUBBING
THORACIC MOBILITY
CLUBBING 
COMPLICATIONS:
RECURRENT HAEMOPTYSIS
PLEURISY AND EMPYEMA
ABCESS FORMATION.
EMPHYSEMA
RESPIRATORY FAILURE
RIGHT VENTRICULAR FAILURE
RIGHT VENTRICULAR FAILURE
PNEUMONIA 
PHYSIOTHERAPY:
  • REMOVE SECRETIONS AND CLEAR LUNG FIELDS.
  • TEACH GOOD COUGHING TECHNIQUE.
  • MAINTAIN MOBILITY OF THE THORAX.
  • PROMOTE GOOD GENERAL HEALTH
CYSTIC FIBROSIS
IT IS THE DISORDER OF EXOCRINE GLANDS,WITH A HIGH SODIUMCHLORIDE CONTENT IN SWEAT AND PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY RESULTING IN MALABSORPTION.
THERE IS HYPERTROPHY AND HYPER PLASIA OF MUCUS SECRETING GLANDS RESULTING IN EXCESSIVE MUCUS PRODUCTION IN THE LINING OF BRONCHI WHICH PREDISPOSES THE PATIENT TO CHRONIC BRONCHOPULMONARY INFECTION.
CLINICAL FEATURES:
CHILDREN:
  • MECONIUM ILEUS
  • FAILURE TO THRIVE AND GAIN WAIGHT.
  • COUGH PRODUCING COPIOUS,OFTEN PURULENT,SPUTUM
  • DYSPNOEA
  • WHEEZING
  • HIGH LEVEL OF SODIUM IN SWEAT
  • FREQUENT,FOUL SMELLING STOOLS 
ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS:
  • PROGRESSIVE BREATHLESSNESS
  • REDUCED FEV1 AS CHRONIC AIRWAYS OBSTURCTION DEVELOPS.
  • CONTINUED WHEEZING AND PRODUCTIVE COUGH WITH PURULENT SPUTUM
  • HAEMOPTYSIS
  • FINGER CLUBBING
  • PUBERTY DELAYED
  • INFERTILITY
COMPLICATIONS:
  • HAEMOPTYSIS
  • SPONTANEUS PNEUMOTHORAX
  • LUNG ABCESSS,BRONCHIECTASIS
  • MECONIUM ILEUS
  • LIVER DISEASE
TUBERCULOSIS
  :
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal contagious disease that can affect almost any part of the body but is mainly an infection of the lungs.

  • Types of TB. Tuberculosis (TB) is divided into two categories: pulmonary and extrapulmonary.

  • Tuberculosis is an infection of the lungs caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis).
 MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
The death of myovardial muscle cells.it occurs when myocardial ischeamia is sufficiently severe and prolong to cause irreversible damage.
Risk factors: 

  • FANILY HISTORY
  • SERUM LIPID
  • BLOOD PRESSURE
  • TOBACCO CHEWING
  •  PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN LEISURE
  • STRESS
  • OBESITY
  • CLOTTING FACTORS
Management:
AIMS:
  1.  TO KEEP THE PATIENT ALIVE
  2. TO RETURN HIM TO HIS NORMAL PLACE IN SOCIETY WITH AS FEW SYMPTOMS AS GOOD A PROGNOSIS AS POSSIBLE.
TREATMENT:
  • REASSURANCE THAT HE CAN BE HELPED
  • RELIEF OF PAIN
  • DRUGS TO MAINTAIN CIRCULATION
  • ADMINISTRATION OF OXIGEN
  • REGULAR EXERCISES IMPROVE THE RISK OF TOLERANCE OF THE PATIENTS
  • DRUGS

 






























Arterial Thrombi


coronary bypass thrombosis pathology
Coronary thrombosis.
When a thrombus forms within an artery, this is known as an arterial thrombosis.
Arterial thrombi:
  • Usually develop on top of an atherosclerotic plaque
  • Have a grey-white appearance, are firmly adherent and grow in the opposite direction from the point of attachment
  • Are composed of regularly arranged layers of platelets and fibrin, irregularly mixed with small amounts of darker red coagulated blood containing erythrocytes
  • Manifest as MI unstable angina, ischaemic stroke and some manifestations of peripheral arterial disease, such as acute limb ischaemia 
  •  

Risk factors

Important risk factors for arterial thrombosis include:
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • Increased levels of cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Increasing age
  • Family history
  • Physical inactivity
  • Increased concentrations of blood coagulation factors
  • Blood serum lipid abnormalities

Incidence and prevalence

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common form of cardiovascular disease. In CAD, atherosclerosis damages the coronary artery wall predisposing to thrombus formation. The symptoms and severity of acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina and MI) vary depending on the degree to which thrombi occlude the coronary arteries.




PNEUMOTHORAX

 A pneumothorax is a collection of free air in the chest outside the lung that causes the lung to collapse. 



TYPES:
 A spontaneous pneumothorax, also referred to as a primary pneumothorax, occurs in the absence of a traumatic injury to the chest or a known lung disease. A secondary (also termed complicated) pneumothorax occurs as a result of an underlying condition.





Picture of Pneumothorax (Collapsed Lung)
Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.1kYpO07q.dpuf



PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT:

Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment

  •     To improve distribution of ventilation
  •     To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  •     To increase oxygenation
  •     Improve exercise tolerance
  •     Maintain airway clearance
  • Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment

    A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
    If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
    Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
    Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
    When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.

Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment

    A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
    Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
    If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
    Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
    Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
    Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
    Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.

Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
  • If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
  • Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
  • Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.
Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
  • Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
  • If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
  • Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
  • Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
  • Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.1kYpO07q.dpuf
Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
  • If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
  • Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
  • Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.
Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
  • Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
  • If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
  • Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
  • Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
  • Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.1kYpO07q.dpuf
Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.8GYUgEt7.dpuf
PULMONARY FIBROSIS

Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
  • If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
  • Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
  • Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.
Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
  • Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
  • If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
  • Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
  • Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
  • Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.1kYpO07q.dpuf
Physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax
There are no published data regarding physiotherapy management of patients with pneumothorax. The following recommendations are based on expert opinion and clinician consensus.
Goals for Physiotherapy in Pneumothorax Treatment
  • To improve distribution of ventilation
  • To reinflate atelectatic lung areas
  • To increase oxygenation
  • Improve exercise tolerance
  • Maintain airway clearance
Physiotherapy Role in Small Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A small pneumothorax (< 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance)is not a contraindication to chest physiotherapy, but if during treatment the patient becomes more breathless or complains of chest pain the doctor should be notified immediately as it is possible that the pneumothorax could have increased in size.
  • If the patient has had a recent pneumothorax or a history of recurrent pneumothoraxes IPPB is probably contraindicated.
  • Gentle coughing can be performed and adequate humidification for ease of sputum expectoration.
  • Reduce exercise intensity and avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • When exercising a patient who has a small pneumothorax, or following a recent pneumothorax or haemoptysis, the physiotherapist should monitor the signs and symptoms during an exercise session.
Physiotherapy Role in Large Pneumothorax Treatment
  • A larger pneumothorax (> 3 cm apex-to-cupola distance) will require an intercostal drain and physiotherapy should be withheld until the drain has been inserted.
  • Analgesia will probably be required before treatment and the patient's usual physiotherapy regimen should be continued, but chest clapping may be unnecessary and may cause discomfort.
  • If the air leak persists and surgical intervention is undertaken, it is essential that physiotherapy is restarted as soon as the patient is awake postoperatively.
  • Adequate analgesia and humidification will assist the clearance of secretions.
  • Shoulder ROM exercises can be performed but avoid upper limb resistance exercises.
  • Aerobic exercise should be started like walking, gentle cycling etc.
  • Avoid positive pressure therapy while draining and for 1-2 weeks after to avoid pleural fistula and risk of recurrence.

Book Appointment

Consult Dr Prodyut Das (PT)
HOD Physiotherapy & Fitness center 
NIMT Hospital, Greater Noida
Former Physio ISIC Hospital 
(+919910883909) 
SITE MAP
You liked it? then do share


Testimonials
"Physiotherapy Treatment Approach continues to exceed my expectations in terms of the quality that Prodyut continues to put out there. This is the leading website in the world in regards to progressing our understanding of human movement and how we apply it to the rehabilitation and strength and conditioning setting. Keep up the good work Prodyut!"
- Dave O'Sullivan, Physical Therapist
"Continue your great work-love your site! It has sent me in new directions as a PT -love looking at different points of view and see how I can incorporate it into my practice!"
- Kenny Physical Therapist, UK
"Prodyut Das has put together a fantastic resource for any professional involved in the rehabilitation or performance training of athletes. physiotherapy-treatment.com has become my go-to resource for cutting edge information on elite athletic development and injury prevention."
- Emmannual Augustine, Physiotherapist, ISIC, New Delhi, India.

Average Rating- 4.5
Votes- 187
- See more at: http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/pneumothorax-treatment.html#sthash.1kYpO07q.dpuf


Pulmonary fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis) in the lungs. It is also described as "scarring of the lung"
.
There are many potential causes of pulmonary fibrosis, such as:
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • scleroderma
  • lupus
  • mineral dusts - coal, silicon, asbestos (asbestosis), metals
  • poisonous industrial gases such as chlorine and sulphur dioxide
  • radiation treatment to the chest
  • poisons - particularly paraquat
  • medications (e.g., nitrofurantoin, amiodarone, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide methotrexate)

Symptoms and Complications of Pulmonary Fibrosis

For the majority of people, the symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis come on slowly over the course of months to years, but for some people the symptoms can develop more rapidly.
Most people with pulmonary fibrosis first see their doctor about increasing shortness of breath during exercise. Some also have a cough. These are often the only symptoms of early pulmonary fibrosis, but you might also feel one or more of the following symptoms:
  • loss of stamina
  • loss of appetite
  • fatigue
  • weight loss
  • diffuse chest pain
Later on, symptoms can include:
  • shortness of breath without exercise - eating, talking, or just resting
  • cyanosis (blue lips, nail beds, and sometimes skin due to lack of oxygen in the tissue)
  • clubbing of the fingers (enlarged fingertips)




ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapidly developing, life-threatening condition in which the lung is injured to the point where it can't properly do its job of moving air in and out of the blood.

 

Conditions that can directly injure the lungs and possibly lead to ARDS include:

  • Breathing in smoke or poisonous chemicals
  • Breathing in stomach contents while throwing up (aspiration)
  • Near drowning
  • Pneumonia
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a lung infection

Conditions that can indirectly injure the lungs and possibly lead to ARDS include:

    AARDS X-ray cropped.jpg
  • Bacterial blood infection (sepsis)
  • Drug overdose
  • Having many blood transfusions
  • Heart-lung bypass
  • Infection or irritation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
  • Severe bleeding from a traumatic injury (such as a car accident)
  • Severe hit to the chest or head
ARDS is defined by three main signs and symptoms:

  • Rapid breathing
  • Feeling like you can't get enough air in your lungs
  • Low oxygen levels in your blood, which can lead to organ failure and symptoms such as rapid heart rate, abnormal heart rhythms, confusion, and extreme tiredness
  •  The aims of physiotherapy are:

  1. Passive/Active movements
  2. Chest Physiotherapy in this case involve four principal manoeuvers:
  3. Positioning to enhance the removal of secretions and to improve gas exchange
  4. Manual Hyperinfl
  5. Removal of retained secreations
  6. ation
  7. Endotracheal suction
  8. Manual techniques which include shakings and vibrations
  9. Passive and active exercises need to be performed regularly whilst the patient mobility remain restricted during the critical stages of their disease, in order to maintain the mobility of joints and extensibility of soft tissues (e.g. muscles, tendons and ligaments).
PMEUMONIA
 Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.


Signs and symptoms:



A diagram of the human body outlining the key symptoms of pneumonia

PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT:

-HUMIDIFICATION-steam inhalation and nebulization to moistem & clear ling fields secreations.

-Clapping,shaking,& breathing exercise

-Postural drainage in different positions

-Chest expersion exercise

-Exercise tolerance & fitness training.

HUMIDIFICATION-steam inhalation and nebulization to moistem & clear ling fields secreations.
-Clapping,shaking,& breathing exercise
-Postural drainage in different positions
-Chest expersion exercise
-Exercise tolerance & fitness training.